|Attention: Flowers, Warner, and Polansky 1979|
Sample Data Files
|Citation||Flowers, J.H., Warner, J.L., & Polansky, M.L. (1979). Response and encoding factors in "ignoring" irrelevant information. Memory & Cognition, 7, 86-94. (pdf)|
|Summary of Experiment||This is a variant on the Stroop task, involving numbers rather than colors. Participants are supposed to name the number written on the screen, or the number of words on the screen. For instance, if they were supposed to name the number, and the screen shows "one one one", they would say "one", whereas if they were supposed to count the numbers, "one one one" would be "three".
This produces similar effects to those found in the Stroop task. The experimenters in the original study found that they could get around that by having participants tap out the number of items instead of saying it, but that is not implemented in this version.
|Related Studies in this Corpus||Stroop 1935, Schneider and Shiffrin 1977|
|Works this Study Cites||Beller, H.K. Naming reading and executing directions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 1975, 1, 154-160.
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Dyer, F.N. The Stroop phenomenon and its use in the study of perceptual, cognitive and response processes. Memory & Cognition, 1973, 1, 106-120.
Egeth, H., Marcus, N., & Bevan, W. Target-set and response-set interaction: Implications for models of human information processing. Science, 1972, 176, 1447-1448.
Flowers, J.H., & Blair, B. Verbal interference with visual classification: Optimal processing and experimental design. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1976, 7, 260-262.
Flowers, J.H., & Dutch, S. The use of visual and name codes in scanning and classifying colors. Memory & Cognition, 1976, 4, 384-390.
Flowers, J.H., & Garner, W.R. The effect of stimulus element redundancy on speed of discrimination as a function of state and process limitation. Perception & Psychophysics, 1971, 9, 158-160.
Flowers, J.H., & Stoup, C.M. Selective attention between words, shapes and colors in speeded classification and vocalization tasks. Memory & Cognition, 1977, 5, 299-307.
Garner, W.R. The processing of information and structure. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1974.
Garner, W.R., & Felfoldy, G.L. Integrality of stimulus dimensions in various types of information processing. Cognitive Psychology, 1970, 1, 225-241.
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Greenwald, A.G. A double stimulation test of ideomotor theory with implications for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 84, 392-398. (b)
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Hock, H.E., & Petrasek, J. Verbal interference with perceptual classification: The effect of semantic structure. Perception & Psychophysics, 1973, 13, 116-120.
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Morton, J. Categories of interference: Verbal mediation and conflict in card sorting. British Journal of Psychology, 60, 329-346.
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Pomerantz, J.R., & Garner, W.R. Stimulus configurations in selective attention tasks. Perception & Psychophysics, 1973, 14, 565-569.
Posner, M.I., & Snyder, C.R.R. Attention and cognitive control. In R.L. Solso (Ed.). Information processing and cognition: The Loyola Symposium. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1975.
Schiffrin, R.M., & Schneider, W. Controlled and automatic information processing II. Perceptual learning and automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 127-190.
Stroop, J.R. Studies of intereference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1935, 18, 643-662.
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Uleman, J.S., & Reeves, J. A reversal of the Stroop effect through scanning. Perception & Psychophysics, 1971, 293-295.
Warren, R.E. Stimulus encoding and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 94, 90-100.
Warren, R.E. Association, directionality, and stimulus encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1974, 102, 151-158.
Windes, J.D. Reaction time for the numerical coding and naming of numerals. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968, 318-322.
|Works in Set that Cite this Study|
|Study Abstract||Subjects classified either the numerosity or numeric value of elements in successive stimulus displays. In separate experiments, responses were indicated by oral naming, card sorting, manual tapping, and oral "tapping". Incongruent levels of numeric value slowed naming and sorting, but not tapping, when numerosity was the cue for responding. Incongruent numerosity slowed tapping, but not naming and sorting, when numeric value was the cue. Changes in stimulus response mapping may thus critically alter the abililty to ignore an irrelevant stimulus dimension.|
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