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Attention: Shapiro, Raymond, and Arnell 1994
Shapiro.zip
ShapiroData.zip
Shapiro, K.L., Raymond, J.E., & Arnell, K.M. (1994). Attention to visual pattern information produces the attentional blink in rapid serial visual presentation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20, 357-371. (PDF)
 
Participants are shown a rapid series of letters, which includes a target letter which they must remember. There may or may not be a non-target letter appearing after the target in the list, and they are asked to note whether or not it appears.

The attentional blink occurs after a stimulus is responded to, when other stimuli are not perceived as quickly or accurately.

Schneider and Shiffrin 1977, Pashler 1992
Botella, J., & Eriksen, C.W. (1992). Filtering versus parallel processing in RSVP tasks. Perception & Psychophsyics, 51, 334-343.

Broadbent, D.E. (1957). A mechanical model for human attention and immediate memory. Psychological Review, 54, 205-215.

Broadbent, D.E. (1977). The hidden preattentive process. American Psychologist, 32, 109-118.

Broadbent, D.E., & Broadbent, M.H.P. (1986). Encoding speed of visual features and the occurrence of illusory conjunctions. Perception, 15, 515-524.

Broadbent, D.E., & Broadbent, M.H.P. (1987). From detection to identification: Response to multiple targets in rapid serial visual presentation. Perception & Psychophysics, 42, 105-114.

Deutsch, J.A., & Deutsch, D. (1963). Attention: Some theoretical considerations. Psychological Review, 70, 80-90.

Duncan, J. (1984). Selective attnetion and the organization of visual information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 501-517.

Duncan, J., & Humphreys, G. (1989). Visual search and stimulus similarity. Psychological Review, 96, 433-458.

Gathercole, S.E., & Broadbent, D.E. (1984). Combining attributes in specified and categorized target search: Further evidence for strategic differences. Memory & Cognition, 12, 329-337.

Intraub, H. (1985). Visual dissociation: An illusory conjunction of pictures and forms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 11, 431-442.

Kanwisher, N.G. (1987). Repetition blindness: Type recognition without token individuation. Cognition, 27, 117-143.

Lawrence, D.H. (1971). Two studies of visual search for word targets with controlled rates of presentation. Perception & Psychophysics, 10, 85-89.

Norman, D.A. (1968). Toward a theory of memory and attention. Psychological Review, 75, 522-536.

Raymond, J.E., Shapiro, K.L, & Arnell, K.M. (1992). Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: An attentional blink? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 849-860.

Reeves, A., & Sperling, G. (1986). Attention gatingi nshort-term visual memory. Psychological Review, 93, 180-206.

Schneider, W., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: 1. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84, 1-66.

Treisman, A. (1988). Features and objects. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40A, 201-237.

Treisman, A., & Gormican, S. (1988). Feature analysis in early vision: Evidence from search asymmetries. Psychological Review, 95, 15-48.

Weichselgartner, E., & Sperling, G. (1987). Dynamics of automatic and controlled visual attention. Science, 238, 778-780.

To investigate the temporal allocation of attention, a series of 7 experiments using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) was designed to examine the relationship of the attentional deficit, or "attentional blink" (AB), recently reported by J.E. Raymond, K.L Shapiro, and K.M. Arnell (1992). The principal finding is that AB occurs only when a target is an object and does not occur when the target is defined by a temporal interval. Target detection difficulty as estimated by d' analysis reveals no relationship between the attentional demands of the target and the production of the AB. A late-selection account of this phenomenon is offered in place of the early-selection account advanced in Raymond et al.'s previous report.
 

13-Mar-2003