Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Attention: Tipper 1985
Tipper, S.P. (1985). The negative priming effect: Inhibitory priming by ignored objects. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37A, 571-590. (doc)
This experiment explores the negative priming effect, where things that have been ignored previously are more difficult to identify than those which were not ignored. Line drawings of familiar objects are superimposed over each other as a prime, and then either an unrelated drawing, the earlier target, or the earlier distractor is shown. The results show that the earlier distractor is more difficult to name than the prime, or an unrelated picture.
Lupiáñez et al. 1997
Allport, D.A. (1977). On knowing the meaning of words we are unable to report: The effects of visual masking. In Dornic, S. (Ed.), Attention and performance VI. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Allport, D.A., Tipper, S.P., and Chmiel, N.C. (In press). Perceptual integration and post-categorical filtering. In M. Posner and O.S. Marin (Eds.), Attention and performance XI. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bahrick, L.E., Walker, A.S. and Neisser, U. (1981). Selective looking by infants. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 377-390.

Becker, L.A. and Killion, T.H. (1977). Interaction of visual and cognitive effects in word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 3, 389-401.

Broadbent, D.E. (1970). Stimulus set and response set. In D.I. Mortofsky (Ed.), Attention: Contemporary theories and analysis. NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Broadbent, D.E. (1971). Decision and stress. London: Academic Press.

Carr, T.N., McCauley, C., Sperber, R.D., and Parmelee, C.M. (1982). Words, pictures and priming: On semantic activation, conscious identification, and automaticity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 757-777.

Collins, A.M., and Loftus, E. (1975). A spreading activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82, 407-428.

Dalrymple-Alford, E.C., and Budayr, B. (1966). Examination of some aspects of the Stroop colour-word test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 23, 1211-1214.

Deutsch, J.A. and Deutsch, D. (1963). Attention: Some theoretical considerations. Psychological Review, 70, 80-90.

Goldstein, E.B. and Fink, S.I. (1981). Selective attention in vision: Recognition memory for superimposed line drawings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 954-967.

Greenwald, A.G. (1972). Evidence for both perceptual filtering and response suppression for rejected messages in selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 94, 58-67.

Harvey, N. (1980). Non-informative effects of stimuli functioning as cues. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 413-425.

Humphreys, G.W.(1981). Flexibility of attention between stimulus dimensions. Perception and Psychophysics, 30, 281-302.

Irwin, J. (1981). Processing interaction in semantic analysis of attended and unattended visual inputs: A directional effect. Journal of General Psychology, CIV-CV, 870-893.

Kahneman, D., and Treisman, A.M. (1984). Changing views of attention and automaticity. In R. Parasuraman, R. Davies and J. Beatty (Eds.), Varieties of attention. New York: Academic Press.

Keele, S.W., and Neill, W.T. (1978). Mechanisms of attention. In E.C. Catrterette and P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception, Vol. 8, New York: Academic Press.

Lowe, D.G. (in press). Further investigations of inhibitory mechanisms in attention. Memory and Cognition.

Marcel, A.J. (1980). Conscious and pre-conscious recognition of polysemous wards. In R. Nickerson (Ed.), Attention and performance VIII. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Marcel, A.J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 187-237.

Martin, M. (1978). Retention of attended and unattended auditorily and visually presented materials. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 187-200.

McKoon, G., and Ratcliffe, R. (1979). Priming in episodic and semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 18, 463-471.

Meyer, D.E. and Schvaneveldt, R.W. (1975). Meaning, memory structure and mental processes. In L. Cofer, The structure of human memory. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Co.

Neely, J.H. (1977). Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 106, 226-254.

Neill, W.T. (1977). Inhibition and facilitation processes in selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 3, 444-450.

Neisser, U. and Becklen, P. (1975). Selective looking: Attending to visually specified events. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 480-494.

Osgood, C.E., Suck, G.J. and Tannenbaum, P.H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Rabbitt, P.M.A. (1966). Errors and error correction in choice RT tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 264-272.

Rock, I. and Gutman, D. (1981). Effect of inattention on form perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 275-285.

Roediger, H.L. and Neely, J.H. (1982). Retrieval blocks in episodic and semantic memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 36, 213-242.

Snodgrass, J.G. and Vanderwart, M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 174-215.

Sperber, R.D., McCauley, C., Ragain, R.D. and Weil, C.M. (1979). Semantic priming effects on picture and word processing. Memory and Cognition, 7, 339-345.

Stroop, J.R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-662.

Van der Heijden, A.H.C. (1981). Short term visual information forgetting. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Warren, R.E. and Morton, J. (1982). The effect of priming on picture recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 73, 117-129.

{Cited By}
Used a priming paradigm to investigate the processing of an ignored object during selection of an attended object in 3 experiments with 57 females (aged 18-45 yrs). The level of internal representation achieved for the ignored object and the subsequent fate of this representation were investigated. In Exp I, a prime display containing 2 superimposed objects was briefly presented; 1 sec later, a probe display was presented containing an object to be named. If the ignored object in the prime display was the same as the subsequent probe, naming latencies were impaired (negative priming), which suggests that internal representations of the ignored object may become associated with inhibition during selection. Selection of a subsequent probe object requiring these inhibited representations is delayed. Exp II replicated the negative priming effect with a shorter interstimulus interval. Exp III examined the priming effects of both the ignored and the selected objects. Data show that for a stimulus selected from the prime display, naming of the same object in the probe display was facilitated. When the same stimulus was ignored in the prime display, however, naming of it in the probe display was again impaired (negative priming). Because negative priming was also demonstrated with categorically related objects, it is suggested that (1) ignored objects achieve categorical levels of representation and (2) the inhibition may be at this level.


Brian MacWhinney