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Human Factors: Klapp and Netick 1988
Klapp, Stuart T., and Netick, Allan. Multiple Resources for Processing and Storage in Short-Term Working Memory. Human Factors, 1988, 30(5), 617-632.PDF

This experiment compared two tasks, one involving determining what digit was missing in a list, and one determining which digit followed a probe digit in the list. The two tasks were paired with two vocalization conditions, one in which participants said the digits aloud as they saw them, and another where they said irrelevant syllables as the digits were presented. These two tasks were selected because, while they are similar in input and output, they require different working memory resources. The vocalization was included because it should interfere with the two tasks differently.

The design is a two-factor (task, vocalization) within-subjects design.

Baddeley 1966, Sternberg 1966, Schneider and Shiffrin 1977

Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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Huey, E. B. (1908). The psychology and pedagogy of reading. New York: Macmillan.

Kantowitz, B. H., and Sorkin, R. D. (1983). Human factors: Understanding people-system relationships. New York: Wiley.

Klapp, S. T. (1986). Memory and processing limits in decision making (Tech. Report 85-60). Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: Air Force Human Resources Laboratory.

Klapp, S. T. (1987). Short-term memory limits in human performance. In P. Hancock (Ed.), Human factors psychology (pp. 1-27). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Klapp, S. T., Greim, D. M., and Marshburn, E. A. (1981). Buffer storage of programmed articulation and articulatory loop: two names ofr the same mechanism or two distinct components of short-term memory? In J. Long and A. Baddeley (Eds.), Attention and performance IX (pp. 459-472). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Wickens, C. D. Sandry, D. L, and Vidulich, M. (1985). Compatibility and resource competition between modalities of input, control processing, and output. Human Factors, 25, 227-248.

{Cited By}
A frequent assumption in cognitive psychology is that performance in decision making and planning is severely restricted by the limited capacity of short-term working memory . Many predictions of this theory have not been supported, possibly because working memory mey be composed of multiple resources rather than a single resource. The present experiments study two tasks, both involving memory for digits. Although these tasks can employ the same modality for input and for responding, they appear to differ in their demands for working memory resources. Specifically, the tasks appear to differ in resources requried for processing at input, and they also differ in resources in the sense of storage capacity. The results support a version of mulitple-resource theory applied to working memory in which resource composition depends on internal mediators even when stimulus and response modality are held constant.
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Brian MacWhinney