Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Psycholinguistics: Clark and Chase 1972
Clark, H.H., & Chase, W.G.(1972). On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 472-517. (pdf)
This experiment gives participants a sentence and a picture, then asks them to verify whether the sentence does or does not describe the picture. For instance, they might be given a picture of an asterisk above a plus and the sentence might read "star is not below plus". They would respond "true" to this.

The findings indicated that participants could tell most quickly whether a sentence was true or false if it contained only positives. For instance, they could recognize "star is above plus" faster than "star is not above plus". They also found that "above" was more quickly processed than "below". This suggested that "below" was encoded on some level as "not above".

Bever, T.C. The cognitive basis for linguistic structures. In J.R. Hayes (Ed.). Cognition and the development of language. New York: Wiley, 1970.

Bierwisch, M. Some semantic universals of German adjectivals. Foundations of Language, 1967, 3, 1-36.

Brooks, L.R. Spatial and verbal components of the act of recall. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1968, 72, 349-368.

Chase, W.G., & Clark, H.H. Semantics in the perception of verticality. British Journal of Psychology, 1971, 62, 311-326.

Chase, W.G., & Clark, H.H. Mental operations in the comparison of sentences and pictures. In L. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in learning and memory. New York: Wiley, in press.

Chase, W.G., Young, R.M., Singer, M., & Clark, H.H. Practice effects in the comparison of sentences and pictures. Paper presented at Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, April 1971.

Clark, H.H. Linguistic processes in deductive reasoning. Psyhological Review, 1969, 76, 387-404.

Clark, H.H. How we understand negation. Paper presented at COBRE Workshop on Cognitive Organization and Psychological Processes. Huntington Beach, California, August 19, 1970.

Clark, H.H. Space, time, semantics, and the child. Paper presented at Conference on Developmental Psycholinguistics, State University of New York at Buffalo, August 1971.

Clark, H.H. Semantics and comprehension. In T.A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics. Vol. 12: Lingusitics and adjacent arts and sciences. The Hague: Mouton, in press.

Clark, H.H., & Begun, J.S. The use of syntax in understanding sentences. British Journal of Psychology, 1968, 59, 219-229.

Clark, H.H., & Chase, W.G. On generating and verifying descriptins of vertical location. In preparation.

Eiferman, R.R. Negation: A linguistic variable. Acta Psychologica, 1961, 18, 258-273.

Fillenbaum, S. Recall for answers to "conducive" questions. Language and Speech, 1968, 11, 46-53.

Fitts, P.M., & Posner, M.I. Human performance. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1967.

Fodor, J., & Garrett, M. Some reflections on competence and performance. In J. Lyons and R. Wales (Eds.), Psycholinguistics apers. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1966.

Fodor, J.A., & Garrett, M. Some syntactic determinants of sentential complexity. Perception and Psychophysics, 1967, 2, 289-296.

Fodor, J.A., Garrett, M., & Bever, T.C. Some syntactic determinants of sentential complexity: II. Verb structure. Perception and Psychophysics, 1968, 3, 458-461.

Foss, D.J. Decision processes during sentence comprehension: Effects of lexical item difficulty and position upon decision times. Journal of Verbal Leraning and Verbal Behavior, 1969, 8, 457-462.

Foss, D.J., & Lynch, R.H., Jr. Decision processes during sentence comprehension: Effects of surface structure on decision times. Perception and Psychophysics, 1969, 5, 145-148.

Givon, T. Notes on the semantic structure of English adjectives. Language, 1970, 46, 816-837.

Goldman-Eisler, F., & Cohen, M. Is N, P, and PN difficulty a valid crtierion of transformational operations? Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1970, 9, 161-166.

Gough, P.B. Grammatical transformations and speed of understanding. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1965, 5, 107-111.

Gough, P.B. The verification of sentences: The effects of delay of evidence and sentence length. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1966, 5, 492-496.

Grasselli, A. (Ed.). Automatic interpretation and classification of images. New York: Academic Press, 1969.

Greene, J.M. Syntactic form and semantic function. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 22, 14-27. (a)

Greene, J.M. The semantic function of negatives and passives. British Journal of Psychology, 1970, 61, 17-22. (b)

Hakes, D.T., & Cairns, H.W. Sentence comprehension and relative pronouns. Perception and Psychophysics, 1970, 8, 5-8.

Jones, S. The effect of a negative qualifier in an instruction. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1966, 5, 495-501. (a)

Jones, S. Decoding a deceptive instruction. British Journal of Psychology, 1966, 57, 405-411. (b)

Jones, S. Instructions, self-instructions and performance. Quarterly Journla of Experimental Psychology, 1968, 20, 74-78.

Just, M. ,& Carpenter, P. Comprehension of negation with quantification. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1971, 10, 244-253.

Leeper, R.W. A study of a neglected portion of the field of learning: The development of sensory organization. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1935, 46, 41-75.

Paivio, A. Mental imagery in associative learning and memory. Psychological Review, 1969, 76, 241-263.

Posner, M.I. Abstraction and the process of recognition. In G. Bower and J. Spence (Eds.) The psychology of learning and motivation. New York: Academic Press, 1969, Vol. 3.

Ross, J.R. On declarative sentences. In R.A. Jacobs and P.S. Rosenbaum (eds.) Readings in English transformational grammar. Waltham, MA: Ginn, 1970.

Seymour, P.H.K. Response latencies in judgments of spatial location. British Journal of PSychology, 1969, 60, 31-39.

Slobin, D.I. Grammatical transformations and sentence comprehension in childhood and adulthood. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1966, 5, 219-227.

Smith, E.E. Choice reaction time: An analysis of the major theoretical positions. Psychological Bulletin, 1968, 69, 77-110.

Sternberg, S. The discoverty of processing stages: extension of Donders' method. In W.G. Koster (Ed.), Attention and performance II. Acta Psycholgica, 1953, 30, 276-315.

Thorndike, E.L., & Lorge, I. The teacher's word book of 30,000 words. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1944.

Trabasso, T. Reasoning and the processing of negative information. Invited address to Division 3 of the American Psychological Association, Miami, September 1970.

Trabasso, T. Mental operations in language comprehension. In J.B. Carroll and R.O. Freedle (eds.) Language comprehension and the acquision of knowledge. Washington, V.H. Winston & Sons, in press.

Trabasso, T., Rollins, H., & Shaugnessy, E. Storage and verification stages in processing concepts. Cognitive Psychology, 1971, 2, 239-289.

Tversky, B. Pictorial and verbal encoding in a short-term memory task. Perception and PSychophysics, 1969, 6, 225-233.

Wales, R.J., & Grieve, R. What is so difficult about negation? Perception and Psychophysics, 1969, 6, 327-332.

Wason, P.C. Response to affirmative and negative binary statements. British Journal of Psychology, 1961, 52, 133-142.

Wason, P.C., & Jones, S. Negatives; Denotation and connotation. British Journla of Psychology, 1963, 54, 299-307.

Watt, W.C. Morphology of the Nevada cattlebrands and their blazons, Part One. Natioanl Bureau of Standards Report 9050, Washington, DC, 1966.

Watt, W.C. Morphology of the Nevada cattlebrands and their blazons, Part Two. Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1967. (a)

Watt, W.C. Structural properties of the Nevada cattlebrands. Computer Science Research Review, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1967, 20-27. (b)

Watt, W.C. Some remarks on iconic grammar. Paper presented at American Anthropology Association Meetings, New Orleans, November, 1969.

Young, R., & Chase, W.G. Additive stages in the comparison of sentences and pictures. Paper presented at Midwestern Psychological Association meetings, Chicago, April, 1971.

{Cited By}
The present study outlines a theory of how people compare sentences against pictures. This theory was tested in four experiments in which Ss were timed as they judged whether a sentence (e.g., Star isn't above plus) was true or false of a picture. The latencies in these tasks were consistent with the thesis that: (1) sentences are represented in terms of elementary propositions; (2) pictures are encoded in the same interpretive format; (3) these two codes are compared in an algorithmic series of mental operations, each of which contributes additively to the response latency; and (4) sentence encoding, picture encoding, comparing, and responding are four serially ordered stages, and their component latencies are additive. From these results, it was also possible to rule out certain explanations based on visual imagery, conversion (e.g., converting isn't above into is below), reading time, normative word frequencies , and other factors. Finally, it was shown that this theory is consistent with previous studies on sentence comprehension, sentence verification, concept verification, and other related phenomena.
{Works Cited}
{Data Instructions}


Brian MacWhinney