Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Psycholinguistics: Grosjean 1996 (includes sound files, 24mb)
Grosjean, F. (1996). Gating. Language and the Cognitive Processes, 11(6), 597-604.(PDF)
This particular experiment attempts to assess the effects of context on determining what a word is. It uses three different amounts of context (none, short sentence, long sentence) and the gating paradigm described in Grosjean's 1996 article, where participants hear more of a word in each successive trial and record what they think the word is and their confidence in their answer.
Just, Carpenter, and Wooley 1982
Bard, E., Shillcock, R., & Altmann, G. (1988). The recognition of words after their acoustic offsets in spontaneous speech: Effects of subsequent context. Perception and Psychophysics, 44, 395–408.

Clark, L., & Grosjean, F. (1982). Sign recognition processes in American Sign Language: The effect of context. Language and Speech, 25, 325–339.

Cotton, S., & Grosjean, F. (1984). The gating paradigm: A comparison of successive and individual presentation formats. Perception and Psychophysics, 35, 41–48.

Craig, C. (1992). Effects of aging on time-gated isolated word-recognition performance. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 234–238.

Craig, C., & Kim, B. (1990). Effects of time gating and word length on isolated word recognition performance. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 808–815.

Craig, C., Kim, B., Rhyner, P., & Chirillo, T. (1993). Effects of word predictability, child development and aging on time-gated speech recognition performance. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 832–841.

Elliott, L., Hammer, M., & Evan, K. (1987). Perception of gated, highly familiar spoken monosyllabic nouns by children, teenagers and older adults. Perception and Psychophysics, 42, 150–157.

Elliott, L., Scholl, M., Grant, J., & Hammer, M. (1990). Perception of gated, highly familiar spoken monosyllabic nouns by children with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 248–259.

Ellis, L., Derbyshire, A., & Joseph, M. (1971). Perception of electronically gated speech. Language and Speech, 14, 229–240.

Emmorey, K., & Corina, D. (1990). Lexical recognition in sign language: Effects of phonetic structure and morphology. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 1227–1252.

Grosjean, F. (1980). Spoken word recognition processes and the gating paradigm. Perception and Psychophysics, 28, 267–283.

Grosjean, F. (1981). Sign and word recognition: A first comparison. Sign Language Studies, 32, 195–220.

Grosjean, F. (1985). The recognition of words after their acoustic offset: Evidence and implications. Perception and Psychophysics, 38, 299–310.

Grosjean, F. (1988). Exploring the recognition of guest words in bilingual speech. Language and Cognitive Processes, 3, 233–274.

Grosjean, F., & Hirt, C. (1996). Using prosody to predict the end of sentences in English and French: Normal and brain-damaged subjects. Language and Cognitive Processes, 11, 107–134.

Grosjean, F., & Itzler, J. (1984). Can semantic constraint reduce the role of word frequency during spoken word recognition? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 180–182.

Grosjean, F., Dommergues, J.-Y., Cornu, E., Guillelmon, D., & Besson, C. (1994). The gender-marking effect in spoken word recognition. Perception and Psychophysics, 56, 590–598.

Lahiri, A., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1991). The mental representation of lexical form: A phonological approach to the recognition lexicon. Cognition, 38, 254–294.

Li, P. (1996). The temporal structure of spoken sentence comprehension in Chinese. Perception and Psychophysics, 58, 571–586.

Li, P. (in press). Spoken word recognition of code-switched words by Chinese-English bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language.

Lively, S., Pisoni, D., & Goldinger, S. (1991). Spoken word recognition: Research and theory. Research on speech perception progress report no. 17. Bloomington, IN: Speech Research Laboratory, Indiana University.

Marcell, M., & Cohen, S. (1992). Hearing abilities of Down syndrome and other mentally handicapped adolescents. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13, 533–551.

Marshall, N., Duke, L., & Walley, A. (1996). The effects of age and Alzheimer’s disease on recognition of gated spoken words. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 724–733.

Marslen-Wilson, W. (1990). Activation, competition, and frequency in lexical access. In G. Altmann (Ed.), Cognitive models of speech processing, pp. 148–172. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Marslen-Wilson, W., & Warren, P. (1994). Levels of perceptual representation and process in lexical access: Words, phonemes and features. Psychological Review, 101, 653–675.

McAllister, J. (1988). The use of context in auditory word recognition. Perception and Psychophysics , 44, 94–97.

McAllister, J. (1991). The processing of lexically stressed syllables in read and spontaneous speech. Language and Speech, 34, 1–26.

Metsala, J. (in press). An examination of word frequency and neighborhood density in the development of spoken recognition. Memory and Cognition.

Nooteboom, S. (1981). Lexical retrieval from fragments of spoken words: Beginnings vs endings. Journal of Phonetics, 9, 407–424.

Ohman, S. (1966). Perception of segments of VCCV utterances. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 40, 979–988.

Pickett, J., & Pollack, I. (1963). The intelligibility of excerpts from fluent speech: Effects of rate of utterance and duration of excerpt. Language and Speech, 6, 151–164.

\Salasoo, A., & Pisoni, D. (1985). Interaction of knowledge source in spoken word identification. Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 210–231.

Schriefers, H., Zwitserlood, P., & Roelofs, A. (1991). The identification of morphologically complex spoken words: Continuous processing or decomposition? Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 26–47.

Tyler, L. (1984). The structure of the initial cohort: Evidence from gating. Perception and Psychophysics , 36, 417–427.

Tyler, L. (1988). Spoken language comprehension in a èuent aphasic patient. Cognitive Neuropsychology , 5, 375–400.

Tyler, L. (1992). Spoken language comprehension: An experimental approach to disordered and normal processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Tyler, L., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1986). The effects of context on the recognition of polymorphemic words. Journal of Memory and Language, 25, 741–752.

Tyler, L., & Wessels, J. (1983). Quantifying contextual contributions to word-recognition processes. Perception and Psychophysics, 34, 409–420.

Tyler, L., & Wessels, J. (1985). Is gating an on-line task? Evidence from naming latency data. Perception and Psychophysics, 38, 217–222.

Tyler, L., Marslen-Wilson, W., Rentoul, J., & Hanney, P. (1988). Continuous and discontinuous access in spoken word-recognition: The role of derivational prefixes. Journal of Memory and Language, 27, 368–381.

Walley, A. (1988). Spoken word recognition by young children and adults. Cognitive Development , 3, 137–165.

Walley, A., Michela, V., & Wood, D. (1995). The gating paradigm: Effects of presentation format on spoken word recognition by children and adults. Perception and Psychophysics, 57, 343–351.

Warren, P., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1987). Continuous uptake of acoustic cues in spoken word recognition. Perception and Psychophysics, 41, 262–275.

Warren, P., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1988). Cues to lexical choice: Discriminating place and voice. Perception and Psychophysics, 43, 21–30.

Wayland, S., Wingéeld, A., & Goodglass, H. (1989). Recognition of isolated words: The dynamics of cohort reduction. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10, 475–487.

Wingfield, A., Goodglass, H., & Smith, K. (1990). Effects of word-onset cuing on picture naming in aphasia: A reconsideration. Brain and Language, 39, 373–390.

Wingfield, A., Alexander, A., & Cavigelli, S. (1994). Does memory constrain utilization of top-down information in spoken word recognition? Evidence from normal aging. Language and Speech, 37, 221–235.

Zwitserlood, P. (1989). Words and sentences: The effects of sentential-semantic context on spoken-word processing. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen.

{Cited By}
This summary sheet presents the gating paradigm as it is used in spoken word recognition research. In this task, a spoken language stimulus is presented in segments of increasing duration and subjects are asked to propose the word being presented and to give a confidence rating after each segment. The dependent variables are the isolation point of the word, the confidence ratings at various points in time and the word candidates proposed after each segment. Different variants of the task are presented, as are the main effects that have been found or confirmed with it. The advantages and the problems associated with the task are discussed, and the studies that have used it with special populations are mentioned.
{Works Cited}
{Data Instructions}


Brian MacWhinney