Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Memory: Craik and Tulving 1975
Craik, F.I.M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-294. (doc)
Participants were given words and questions about them. The questions involved "shallow" features, like font, "intermediate" features, like rhyming, and "deep" features involving meaning. They were then given an unexpected recall or recognition task. It was found that deeply encoded words were, in fact, remembered better than shallowly encoded ones.
Craik and Watkins 1973
Begg, I. Recall of meaningful phrases. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 431-439.

Bobrow, S.A., & Bower, G.H. Comprehension and recall of sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969, 80, 55-61.

Bower, G.H. A multicomponent theory of the memory trace. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press, 1967.

Bower, G.H., & Karlin, M.B. Depth of processing pictures of faces and recognition memory. Journal of Experimetnal Psychology, 1974, 103, 751-757.

Broadbent, D.E. Behaviour. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1961.

Cermak, L.S. Human memory: Research and theory. New York: Ronald, 1972.

Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 671-684.

Craik, F.I.M., & Watkins, M.J. The role of rehearsal in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 599-607.

Eagle, M., & Leiter, E. Recall and recognition in intentional and incidental learning. Journla of Experimental Psychology, 1964, 68, 58-63.

Horowitz, L.M., & Prytulak, L.S. Redintegrative memory. Psychological Review, 1969, 76, 519-531.

Hyde, T.S. Differential effects of effort and type of orienting task on recall and organization of highly associated words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 79, 111-113.

Hyde, T.S., & Jenkins, J.J. Differential effects of incidental tasks on the organization of recall of a list of highly associated words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969, 82, 472-481.

Hyde, T.S., & Jenkins, J.J. Recall for words as a function of semantic, graphic, and syntactic orienting tasks. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 471-480.

Jacoby, L.L. Test appropriate strategies in retention of categorized lists. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 675-682.

Kolers, P.A. Remembering operations. Memory & Cognition, 1973, 1, 347-355. (a)

Kolers, P.A. Some modes of representation. In P. Pliner, L. Krames, & T. Alloway (Eds.), Communication and affect: Language and thought. New York: Academic press, 1973. (b)

Kolers, P.A., & Ostry, D.J. Time course of loss of information regarding pattern analysing operations. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1974, 13, 599-612.

Lockhart, R.S., Craik, F.I.M., & Jacoby, L.L.. Depth of processing in recognition and recall: Some aspects of a general memory system. In J. Brown (Ed.), Recognition and recall. London: Wiley, 1975.

Neisser, U. Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.

Norman, D.A. (Ed.). Models of human memory. New York: Academic Press, 1970.

Paivio, A. Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1971.

Postman, L. Short-term memory and incidental learning. In A.W. Melton (Ed.), Categories of human learning. New York: Academic Press, 1964.

Rosenberg, S., & Schiller, W.J. Semantic coding and incidental sentence recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 90, 345-346.

Schulman, A.I. Recognition memory for targets from a scanned word list. British Journal of Psychology, 1971, 62, 335-346.

Schulman, A.I. Memory for words recently classified. Memory & Cognition, 1974, 2, 47-52.

Sheehan, P.W. The role of imagery in incidental learning. British Journal of Psychology, 1971, 62, 235-244.

Sutherland, N.S. Object recognition. In E.C. Carterette & M.P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception (Vol. 3). New York: Academic Press, 1972.

Till, R.E. ,& Jenkins, J.J. The effects of cued orienting tasks on the free recall of words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 489-498.

Treisman, A., & Tuxworth, J. Immediate and delayed recall of sentences after perceptual processing at different levels. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1974, 13, 38-44.

Tulving, E. Episodic and semantic memory. In E.Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.

Tulving, E., & Thomson, D.M. Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 352-373.

Tulving, E., & Watkins, M.J. Structure of memory traces. Psychological Review, 1975, 82, 261-275.

Walsh, D.A., & Jenkins, J.J. Effects of orienting tasks on free recall in incidental learning: "Difficulty," "effort," and "process" explanations. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 481-488.

Waugh, N.C., & Norman, D.A. Primary memory. Psychological Review, 1965, 72, 89-104.

Wickelgren, W.A. The long and the short of memory. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, 425-438.

Weldon and Roediger 1987

Ten experiments were designed to explore the levels of processing framework for human memory research proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972).  The basic notions are that the episodic memory trace may be thought of as a rather automatic by-product of operations carried out by the cognitive system and that the durability of the trace is a positive function of “depth” of processing, where depth refers to greater degrees of semantic involvement.  Subjects were induced to process words to different depths by answering various questions about typescript; intermediate levels of encoding were accomplished by asking questions about rhymes; deep levels were induced by asking whether the word would fit into a given category or sentence frame.  After the encoding phase was completed, subjects were unexpectedly given a recall or recognition test for the words.  In general, deeper encodings took longer to accomplish and were associated with higher levels of performance on the subsequent memory test.  Also, questions leading to positive responses were associated with higher retention levels than questions leading to negative responses, at least at deeper levels of encoding. 

Further experiments examined this pattern of effects in greater analytic detail.  It was established that the original results did not simply reflect differential encoding times; an experiment was designed in which a complex but shallow task took longer to carry out but yielded lower levels of recognition than an easy, deeper task.  Other studies explored reasons for the superior retention of words associated with positive responses on the initial task.  Negative responses were remembered as well as positive responses when the questions led to an equally elaborate encoding in the two cases.  The idea that elaboration or “spread” of encoding provides a better description of the results was given a further boost by the finding of the typical pattern of results under intentional learning conditions, and where each word was exposed for 6 sec in the initial phase.  While spread and elaboration may indeed by better descriptive terms for the present findings, retention depends critically on the qualitative nature of the encoding operations performed; a minimal semantic analysis is more beneficial than an extensive structural analysis. 

Finally, Schulman’s (1974) principle of congruity appears necessary for a complete description of the effects obtained.  Memory performance is enhanced to the extent that the context, or encoding question, forms an integrated unit with the word presented.  A congruous encoding yields superior memory performance because a more elaborate trace is laid down and because in such cases the structure of semantic memory can be utilized more effectively to facilitate retrieval.  The article concludes with a discussion of the broader implications of these data and ideas for the study of human learning and memory.

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Brian MacWhinney