Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Memory: Posner and Keele 1968
Posner, M.I., & Keele, S.W. (1968). On the genesis of abstract ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 353-363. (pdf)
This experiment presents 3 prototypes, then asks participants to identify them. Once they have classified minor distortions of them for two consecutive sets of practice trials, they are asked to classify some more major distortions. They classify distortions as either new or old based on whether they saw them in the practice trials.
Garner 1970
Attneave, F. Transfer of experience with a class-schema to identification-learning of patterns and shapes. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1957, 54, 81-88.

Bartlett, F.C. Remembering, a study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932.

Dukes, W.F., & Bevan, W. Stimulus variation and repetition in the acquisition of naming responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1967, 74, 178-181.

Evans, S.H., & Edmonds, E.M. Schema discrimination as a function of training. Psychonomic Science, 1966, 5, 303-304.

Glanzer, M., & Clark, W.H. Accuracy of perceptual recall: An analysis of organization. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1963, 1, 289-299.

Hinsey, W.C. Identification-learning after pretraining on central and noncentral standards. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Oregon, 1963.

Morrisett, L., Jr., & Hovland, C.I. A comparison of three varieties of training in human problem solving. Jorunal of Experimental Psychology, 1959, 58, 52-55.

Norman, D.A. A comparison of data with different false alarm rates. Psychological Review, 1964, 71, 243-246.

Oldfield, R.C., & Zangwill, O.L. Head's concept of the schema and its application in contemporary British psychology. British Journal of Psychology, 1952, 32, 267-286.

Posner, M.I., Goldsmith, R., & Welton, K.E., Jr. Perceived distance and the classification of distorted patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1967, 73, 28-38.

Sperling, G. A model for visual memory tasks. Human Factors, 1963, 5, 19-31.

{Cited By}
Previous work has shown that Ss can learn to classify sets of patterns which are distortions of a prototype, even when they have not seen the prototype. In this paper it is shown that after learning a set of patterns, the prototype (schema) of that set is more easily classified than control patterns which are also within the learned category. As the variability among the memorized patterns increases, so does the ability of Ss to classify highly distorted new instances. These findings argue that information about te schema is abstracted from the stored instances with very high efficiency. It is unclear whether the abstraction of information involved in classifying the schema occurs while learning the original patterns or whether the abstraction process takes place at the time of the first presentation of the schema.
{Works Cited}
{Data Instructions}


Brian MacWhinney