Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Memory: Sperling 1960
Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74 (11, Whole No. 498). (doc)
Participants were presented with a display of two lines of letters (with three or four letters per line). Then they were given a tone (either high or low) that indicated which line they were supposed to remember.
Brown 1958, Peterson and Peterson 1959, Waugh and Norman 1965
Adams, J.S. The relative effectiveness of pre and post-stimulus setting as a function of stimulus uncertainty. Unpublished master's dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, 1955.

Alpern, M. Metacontrast. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 1953, 43, 648-657.

Bart, N. Ueber die Zeit welche noetig ist damit ein Gesichtseindruck zum Bewusstsein kommt und ueber die Groesse (Extension) der bewussten Wahrnehmung bei einem Gesichtseindrucke von gegebener Dauer. Pflueger's Arch. ges. Physiol., 1871, 4, 325-336.

Berry, W., & Imus, H. Quantitative aspects of the flight of colors. Amer. J. Psychol., 1935, 47, 449-457.

Bidwell, S. On the negative after-images following brief retinal excitation. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., 1897, 61, 268-271.

Bridgin, R.L. A tachistoscopic study of the differentiation of perception. Psychol. Monogr., 1933, 44 (1, Whole No. 197), 153-166.

Broadbent, D.E. Immediate memory and simultaneous stimuli. Quart. J. exp. Psychol., 1957, 9, 1-11. (a)

Broadbent, D.E. A mechanical model for human attention and memory. Psychol. Rev., 1957, 64, 205-215. (b)

Broadbent, D.E. Perception and communication. New York: Pergamon, 1958.

Cattell, J. McK. Ueber die Traegheit der Netzhaut und des Sehcentrums. Phil. Stud., 1883, 3, 94-127.

Chapman, D.W. The comparative effects of determinate and indeterminate aufgaben. Unpublished doctor's dissertation, Harvard University, 1930.

Chapman, D.W. Relative effects of determinate and indeterminate "Aufgaben." Amer. J. Psychol., 1932, 44, 163-174.

Cohen, L.D., & Thomas, D.R. Decision and motor components of reaction time as a function of anxiety level and task complexity. Amer. Psychologist, 1957, 12, 420. (Abstract).

Dallenbach, K.M. Attrbutive vs. cognitive clearness. J. exp. Psychol., 1920, 3, 183-230.

Diefendorf, A.R., & Dodge, R. An experimental study of the ocular reactions of the insane from photographic records. Brain, 1908, 31, 451-489.

Dodge, R. An experimental study of visual fixation. Psychol. Monogr., 1907, 8(4, Whole No. 35). (a)

Dodge, R. An improved exposure apparatus. Psychol. Bull., 1907, 4, 10-13. (b)

Erdmann, B., & Dodge, R. Psychologische Untersuchungen ueber das Lesen auf experimenteller Grundlage. Halle: Niemeyer, 1898.

Glanville, A.D., & Dallenbach, K.M. The range of attention. Amer. J. Psychol., 1929, 41, 207-236.

Goldiamond, I. Operant analysis of perceptual behavior. Paper read at Symposium on Experimental Analysis of Behavior, APA Annual Convention, 1957.

James, W. The principles of psychology. New York: Holt, 1890.

Klemmer, E.T. Simple reaction time as a function of time uncertainty. J. exp. Psychol., 1957, 54, 195-200.

Klemmer, E.T., & Loftus, J.P. Numerals, nonsense forms, and information. USAF Cambridge Research Center, Operational Applications Laboratory, Bolling Air Force Base, 1958. (Astia Doc. No. AD110063)

Kuelpe, O. Versuche ueber Abstraktion. In Bericht ueber den erste Kongress fuer experimentelle Psychologie. Leipzig: Barth, 1904. Pp. 56-68.

Ladd, G.T. Elements of psychological psychology: A treaties of the activities and nature of the mind. New York: Scribner, 1889.

Lawrence, D.H., & Coles, G.R. Accuracy of recognition with alternatives before and after the stimulus. J. exp. Psychol., 1954, 47, 208-214.

Lawrence, D.H., & Laberge, D.L. Relationship between accuracy and order of reporting stimulus dimensions. J. exp. Psychol., 1956, 51, 12-18.

Lindsley, D.B., & Emmons, W.H. Perception time and evoked potentials. Science, 1958, 127, 1061.

Long, E.R., Henneman, R.H., & Reid, L.S. Theoretical considerations and exploratory investigation of "set" as response restriction: The first of a series of reports on "set" as a determiner of perceptual responses. USAF WADC tech. Rep., 1953, No. 53-311.

Long, E.R., & Lee, W.A. The influence of specific stimulus cuing on location responses; The third of a series of reports on "set " as a determiner of perceptual responses. USAF WADC tech. Rep., 1953, No. 53-314. (a)

Long, E.R., & Lee, W.A. The role of spatial cuing as a response-limiter for location responses: The second of a series of reports on "set" as a determiner of perceptual responses. USAF WADC tech. Rep., 1953, No. 53-312. (b)

Long, E.R., Reid, L.D., & Garvey, W.D. The role of stimulus ambiguity and degree of response restriction in the recognition of distorted letter patterns: The fourth of a series of reports on "set" as a determiner of perceptual responses. USAF WADC tech. Rep., 1954, No. 54-147.

Luce, D.R. A survey of the theory of selective information and some of its behavioral applications. New York: Bureau of Applied Social Research, 1956.

McDougall, W. The sensations excited by a single momentary stimulation of the eye. Brit. J. Psychol., 1904, 1, 78-113.

Miller, G.A. Human memory and the storage of information. IRE Trans. Information Theory, 1956, IT-2, No. 3, 129-137. (a)

Miller, G.A. The magic number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychol. Rev., 1956, 63, 81-97. (b)

Miller, G.A., & Nicely, P.E. An analysis of perceptual confusions among some English consonants. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 1955, 27, 338-352.

Piéron, H. L'évanouissement de la sensation lumineuse: Persistance indifferenciable et persistance totale. Ann. psychol., 1934, 35, 1-49.

Pollack, I. The assimilation of sequentially-encoded information. Hum. Resources Res. Lab. memo Rep., 1952, No. 25.

Pritchard, R.M. Visual illusions viewed as stabilized retinal images. Quart. J. exp. Psychol., 1958, 10, 77-81.

Quastler, H. Studies of human channel capacity. In H. Quastler, Three survey papers. Urbana, IL: Control Systems Laboratory, Univer. Illinois, 1956. Pp. 13-33.

Schumann, F. Die Erkennung von Buchstaben und Worten bei momentaner Beluchtigung. In Bericht ueber den erste Kongress fuer experimentelle Psychologie. Leipzig: Barth, 1904. Pp. 34-40.

Schumann, F. The Erkennungsurteil. Z. Psychol., 1922, 88, 205-224.

Sperling, G. Information available in a brief visual presentation. Unpublished doctor's dissertation, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 1959.

Sperling, G. Afterimage without prior image. Science, 1960, 131, 1613-1614.

von Helmholtz, H. Treatise on physiological optics. Vol. II. The sensations of vision. (Transl. from 3rd German ed.) Rochester, New York: Optical Society of America, 1924-25.

Wagner, J. Experimentelle Beitrage zur Psychologie des Lesens. Z. Psychol., 1918, 80, 1-75.

Weyer, E.M. The Zeitschewellen gleichartiger und disparater Sinneseindrucke. Phil. Stud., 1899, 15, 68-138.

Whipple, G.M. Manual of physical and mental tests. Vol I. Simpler processes. Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1914.

Wilcocks, R.W. An examination of Kuelpe's experiments on abstraction. Amer. J. Psychol., 1925, 36, 324-340.

Woodworth, R.S. Experimental psychology. New York: Holt: 1938.

Wundt, W. Zur Kritik tachistosckopischer Versuche. Phil. Stud. 1899, 15, 287-317.

Waugh & Norman 1965
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Brian MacWhinney