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Sensation and Perception: McCollough 1965
McCollough, C. (1965). Color Adaptation of Edge-Detectors in the Human Visual System. Science, 149, 1115-1116.(PDF)
This experiment shows participants alternating blue fields with horizontal stripes and orange fields with vertical stripes. The edge detectors then adjust to compensate, and participants see orange color behind all horizontal edges and blue color behind all vertical edges. This is also known as the McCollough Effect, for obvious reasons.
Helson 1964, Schiffman 1982
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An aftereffect of color which depends on the orientation of lines in the test field may be obtained by presenting a horizontal grating of one color alternately with a vertical grating of a different color. Like the aftereffect of adaptation to chromatic fringes produced by prismatic spectacles, this aftereffect is visible in monochromatic light and fails to show interocular transfer. It is suggested that both effects are to be understood in terms of color adaptation of orientation-specific edge-detectors.
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Brian MacWhinney