Alphabetical List | Categorical List
Hamilton, D.L., Katz, L.B., & Leirer, V.O. (1980). Cognitive representation of personality impressions: Organizational processes in first impression formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1050-1063.(PDF)
Participants were given the same descriptions of a person, with instructions either to remember the descriptions, or to use them to construct an impression of someone. The people given impression formation instructions were more likely than those given memory instructions to remember the traits.
Higgins, Rholes, and Jones 1977
Anderson, J.R., & Bower, G.H. Human associative memory. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1973.

Anderson, N.H. Information integration theory: A brief survey. In D. Krantz, R.C. Atkinson, R.D. Luce, & P. Suppes (Eds.), Contemporary developments in mathematical psychology (Vol. 2). San Francisco: Freeman, 1974.

Bransford, J.D., & Johnson, M.K. considerations of some problems of comprehension. In W.G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing. New York: Academic Press, 1973.

Hastie, R., & Kumar, P.A. Person memory: Personality traits as organizing principles in memory for behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, 37, 25-38.

Jaccard, J.J., & Fishbein, M. Inferential beliefs and order effects in personality impression formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 31, 1031-1040.

Langer, E.J., & Abelson, R.P. The semantics of asking a favor: How to succeed in getting help without really dying. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972, 24, 26-32.

Lingle, J.H., Geva, M., Ostrom, T.M., Leippe, M.R., & Baumgardner, M.H. Thematic effects of person judgments on impression organization. Jornal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, 37, 674-687.

Norman, W.T. Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1963, 66, 574-583.

Rumelhart, D.E., & Ortony, A. The representation of knowledge in memory. In R.C. Anderson, R.J. Spiro, & W.E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1977.

Smith, E.E., Adams, N, & Schorr, D. Fact retrieval and the paradox of interference. Cognitive Psychology, 1978, 10, 438-464.

Wallace, W.P. Review of the historical, empirical, and theoretical status of the von Restorff phenomenon. Psychological Bulletin, 1965, 63, 410-424.

{Cited By}
In three experiments subjects given either impression formation or memory task instructions read a series of behavior descriptions that either did or did not contain a highly distincitive item. In each study subjects given impression formation instructions recalled significantly more items than did subjects in the memory condition. Subjects given impression formation instructions were more likeyly to recall a distinctive item, but presence of a distinctive item in the stimulus list had little effect on recall of the other items. Results are discussed in terms of the organization of information acquired during the process of impression development.
{Works Cited}
{Data Instructions}


Brian MacWhinney