STEP Classic Experiments

STEP E-Prime Scripts: Alphabetical List

These sample scripts replicate classic, unique, or interesting studies in experimental psychology. They are intended both to demonstrate the results of the studies and to show what E-Prime can do as an experiment generation framework. They are free to download, though we ask that you credit this project if you use them in a public context. Scans of articles are only to be viewed on the browser in the context of fair use and not distributed. Thanks to Yanping Dong and her students at Guangzhou Foreign Studies University for reentering and rechecking the text of 20 of the classic studies.

We also have some scripts that were submitted to us but not credited to particular authors. These are listed on two separate pages:

1. Common experimental paradigms such as n-back, Iowa Gambling, etc.

2. Student submissions, from students in Research Methods at CMU.

Click on experiment names to find out more information and to download the scripts. If you would like to see a list of scripts with no explanations or supporting materials, look at the Script List, or if you would like to download the entire experiment set without supporting materials, download the whole STEP experiment set (54 MB).

Categorical List

Script Credits


  1. Baddeley - Acoustic Similarity
    acoustic confusability in working memory
  2. Baranski and Petrusic 1994 - The calibration and resolution of confidence in perceptual judgements
    overconfidence in motor performance
  3. Baranski and Petrusic 1995 - Calibration of Knowledge and Perception
    confidence in motor performance versus general knowledge
  4. Bilodeau, Bilodeau, and Schumsky 1959 - Some effects of introducing and withdrawing knowledge of results early and late in practice
    knowledge of results
  5. Boland, Tanenhaus, and Garnsey 1990 - Evidence for the immediate use of verb control information in sentence processing
    verb control information
  6. Bower 1972 - Mental imagery and associative learning
    paired-associate learning and imagery
  7. Bransford and Franks 1971 - The abstraction of linguistic ideas
    schema-based memory
  8. Brewer 1977 - Memory for the pragmatic implications of sentences
    pragmatic implications
  9. Broadbent 1954 - The role of auditory localization in attention and memory span
  10. Brown 1958 - Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory
    duration of primary memory
  11. Clark and Chase 1972 - On the process of comparing sentences against pictures
    sentence-picture verification
  12. Conrad 1964 - Acoustic confusions in immediate memory
    acoustic confusions
  13. Conway and Engle 1996 - Individual differences in working memory capacity
    general capacity theory
  14. Cooper and Shepard 1973 - Time required to prepare for a rotated stimulus
    mental rotation
  15. Craik and Tulving 1975 - Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory
    depth of processing
  16. Craik and Watkins 1973 - The role of rehearsal in short-term memory
    retention does not guarantee storage
  17. Eriksen and St. James 1986 - Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention
    time-course of selective visual attention
  18. Flowers, Warner, and Polansky 1979 - Response and encoding factors in ignoring irrelevant information
    number stroop
  19. Foertsch and Gernsbacher 1997 - In search of gender neutrality
    gender-neutral prounoun use
  20. Garner 1970 - Good patterns have few alternatives
    the aesthetics of figure goodness
  21. Glushko 1979 - The organization and activation of orthographic knowledge in reading aloud
    gang effects in reading
  22. Gray and Wedderburn 1960 - Grouping strategies with simultaneous stimuli
    division of attention between the ears
  23. Green and Swets - Signal detection theory and psychophysics
    signal detection theory
  24. Grosjean 1996 - Gating
    gating paradigm
  25. Hamilton, Katz, and Leirer 1980 - Cognitive representation of personality impressions
    impression formation versus memory task instructions
  26. Helson and Bevan 1964 - An investigation of variables of judgments of relative area
    adaptation-level theory in a relative size illusion
  27. Higgins, Rholes, and Jones 1977 - Category Accessibility and Impression Formation
    priming of impression formation
  28. Hyman 1953 - Stimulus information as a determinant of reaction time
    Hick-Hyman Law
  29. Jacoby 1983 - Perceptual enhancement: Persistent effects of an experience
    implicit memory
  30. Johnston and Schwarting 1996 - Reassessing the Evidence for Novel Popout
    pop-out theories
  31. Just, Carpenter, and Wooley 1982 - Paradigms and Processes in Reading Comprehension
    moving window paradigm in reading
  32. Kirkpatrick 1894 - An experimental study of memory
    serial position effects
  33. Klapp 1988 - Multiple resources for processing and storage in short-term working memory
    Human Factors workload
  34. Koriat, Lichtenstein, and Fischhoff 1980 - Reasons for Confidence
    overestimation of knowledge
  35. Kosslyn 1976 - Can imagery be distinguished from other forms of internal representation?
    mental imagery
  36. Kramer and Hahn 1995 - Splitting the beam
    splitting the beam of attention
  37. Luchins and Luchins 1950 - New experimental attempts at preventing mechanization in problem solving
    mental set and operations
  38. Lukatela and Turvey 1994a - Visual lexical analysis is initially phonological: 1.
    phonological processes in reading
  39. Lukatela and Turvey 1994b - Visual lexical analysis is initially phonological: 2.
    phonological processes in reading
  40. Lupiáñez, et. al. 1997 - Does IOR occur in discrimination tasks?
    inhibition of return (IOR)
  41. McCollough 1965 - Color adaptation of edge-detectors in the human visual system
    McCollough effect
  42. McDonald 1993 - The interaction of lexical and syntactic ambiguity
    noun-adjective ambiguities
  43. MacWhinney et al. 2000 - Online measures of basic language skills in children with early focal brain lesions
    language in children with focal brain lesions
  44. MacWhinney and Bates - Identifying the actor in pseudosentences
    MacWhinney-Bates identification task
  45. Meyer and Schvaneveldt 1971 - Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words
    spreading lexical activation
  46. Navon 1977 - Forest before trees
    processing global and local features
  47. Neisser 1964 - Visual search
    visual search
  48. Paivio 1965 - Abstractness, imagery, and meaningfulness in paired-associate learning
    imagery in paired-associate learning
  49. Palermo and Eberhart 1968 - On the learning of morphological rules
    analogy for learning morphological rules
  50. Pashler 1992 - Attentional limitations in doing two tasks at the same time
    bottleneck effects
  51. Perfetti, Bell, and Delaney 1988 - Automatic (prelexical) phonetic activation in silent word reading
    automatic phonological processing during reading
  52. Peterson and Peterson 1959 - Short-term retention of individual verbal items
    recall of individual items
  53. Poffenberger 1912 - Reaction time to retinal stimulation with special reference to the time lost in conduction through nerve centers
    crossed-uncrossed difference in reaction time
  54. Posner and Keele 1968 - On the genesis of abstract ideas
    creation of category prototypes
  55. Posner and Mitchell 1967 - Chronometric analysis of classification
    subtractive analysis of levels of processing
  56. Posner, Snyder, and Davidson 1980 - Attention and the detection of signals
    spatial cueing
  57. Ramachandran 1992 - Blind spots
    the filling-in of blind spots in vision
  58. Roediger and McDermott 1995 - Creating false memories
    false memories
  59. Rumelhart and McClelland 1982 - An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 2.
    perceiving letters within words
  60. Santee and Egeth 1982 - Reaction time and accuracy
    measuring reaction time and accuracy
  61. Schiffman 1982 -
    visual illusions
  62. Schneider and Shiffrin 1977 - Controlled and automatic human information processing: I.
  63. Shapiro, Raymond, and Arnell 1994 - Attention to visual pattern information produces the attentional blink in rapid serial visual presentation
    attentional blink
  64. Sperling 1960 - The information available in brief visual presentations
    iconic visual memory
  65. Sternberg 1966 - High speed scanning in human memory
    scanning through working memory
  66. Stroop 1935 - Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions
    automaticity in reading
  67. Thomson and Tulving 1970 - Associative encoding and retrieval
    associative encoding of words
  68. Tipper 1985 - The negative priming effect
    negative priming
  69. Treisman and Gelade 1980 - A feature-integration theory of attention
    search for features
  70. Tulving and Pearlstone 1966 - Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words
    availability versus accessibility in memory for words
  71. Warren and Warren 1970 - Auditory illusions and confusions
    auditory illusions
  72. Waugh and Norman 1965 - Primary memory
    decay vs. interference
  73. Weldon and Roediger 1987 - Altering retrieval demands reverses the picture superiority effect
    picture superiority effect
  74. Welford 1968
    Fitt's Law
  75. Wickens 1972 - Characteristics of word encoding
    release from proactive inhibition
  76. Yantis 1993 - Stimulus-driven attentional capture and attentional control settings
    stimulus-driven involuntary capture of attention

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For more information or to send corrections or additions, contact Brian MacWhinney at Carnegie Mellon.